every hero starts from zero.



We've read it.  Now it's your turn.


  • Arendt E, Dick R. Knee injury patterns among men and women in collegiate basketball and soccer:  NCAA data and review of the literature. Am J Sports Med. 1995; 23:694-701.
  • Boden BP, Dean GS, Feagin JA Jr, Garrett WE Jr. Mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury. Orthopedics. 2000;23(6):573.
  • Cowling EJ, Steele JR. Is lower limb muscle synchrony during landing affected by gender? Implications for variations in ACL injury rates. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2001 Aug;11(4):263-8.
  • Csintalan RP, Inacio M, Funahashi TT. Incidence Rate of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructions. Perm J. 2008 Summer; 12(3):17–21.
  • Daniel DM, Stone ML, Dobson BE, Fithian DC, Rossman DJ, Kaufman KR.  Fate of the ACL-injured patient. A prospective outcome study.  Am J Sports Med. 1994;22(5):632.
  • Escamilla RF, MacLeod TD, Wilk KE, Paulos L, Andrews JR. ACL Strain and Tensile Forces for Weight Bearing and Non—Weight-Bearing Exercises After ACL Reconstruction: A Guide to Exercise Selection. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2012; 42(3): 208-220.
  • Ford KR, Myer GD, Toms HE, Hewett TE. Gender differences in the kinematics of unanticipated cutting in young athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(1):124.
  • Harmon KG, Ireland ML. Gender differences in noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Clin Sports Med. 2000; 19:287-302.
  • Hewett TE, Myer GD, Ford KR. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes: Part 1, mechanisms and risk factors. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(2):299.
  • Huston LJ, Greenfield ML, Wojtys EM. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in the female athlete. Potential risk factors. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2000 Mar;(372):50-63.
  • Kucera KL, Marshall SW, Kirkendall DT, Marchak PM, Garrett WE Jr. Injury history as a risk factor for incident injury in youth soccer. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(7):462.
  • Lindenfeld TN, Schmitt DJ, Hendy MP, Mangine RE, Noyes FR. Incidence of injury in indoor soccer. Am J Sports Med. 1994; 33:364-371.
  • Lohmander L, Englund M, Roos H. High prevalence of knee osteoarthritis, pain, and functional limitations in female soccer players twelve years after anterior cruciate ligament injury. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:3145–52.
  • Malone TR, Hardaker WT, Garrett WE, et al. Relationship of gender to anterior cruciate ligament injuries in intercollegiate basketball players. J South Orthop Assoc. 1993; 2:36-39.
  • Miyasaka, KC, Daniel, DM, Stone, ML.  The incidence of knee ligament injuries in the general population.  Am J Knee Surg. 1991; 4:43.
  • Muneta T, Sekiya I, Yagishita K, Ogiuchi T, Yamamoto H, Shinomiya K.  Two-bundle reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using semitendinosus tendon with endobuttons: operative technique and preliminary results.  Arthroscopy. 1999;15(6):618.
  • Myer GD, Ford KR, Barber Foss KD, Liu C, Nick TG, Hewett TE. The relationship of hamstrings and quadriceps strength to anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes. Clin J Sport Med. 2009;19(1):3.
  • Myer GD, Ford KR, Hewett TE. The effects of gender on quadriceps muscle activation strategies during a maneuver that mimics a high ACL injury risk position. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2005;15(2):181.
  • Myer GD, Ford KR, Khoury J, Succop P, Hewett TE. Biomechanics laboratory-based prediction algorithm to identify female athletes with high knee loads that increase risk of ACL injury. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45: 245-252.
  • UpToDate. Anterior cruciate ligament injury.  Literature review current through: Aug 2014. Last updated: Jun 26, 2014. Available at: http://www.uptodate.com
  • Waldén M, Atroshi I, Magnusson H, Wagner P, Hägglund M. Prevention of acute knee injuries in adolescent female football players: cluster randomised controlled trial. Br J Sports Med. 2012;344:e3042.
  • Wilk KE, Macrina LC, Cain EL, Dugas JR, Andrews JR. Recent Advances in the Rehabilitation of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2012;42(3):153-171.


  • Árnason Á, Engebretsen L, Bahr R. No effect of a video-based awareness program on the rate of soccer injuries. Am J Sports Med. 2005;33:77–84.
  • Behm DG, Chaouachi A. A review of the acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011 Mar 4.
  • Brooks T, Cressey E. Mobility Training for the Young Athlete. Strength Cond J. 2013; 35(3):27-33.
  • Brooks MA, McGuine TA. Translating cost-effective injury prevention research into sustainable change on the playing field: the youth injury epidemic. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011 Nov; 165(11):1049-50.
  • Caraffa A, Cerulli G, Projetti M, Aisa G, Rizzo A. Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer. A prospective controlled study of proprioceptive training. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 1996;4(1):19.
  • Curry BS, Chengkalath D, Crouch GJ, Romance M, Manns PJ. Acute effects of dynamic stretching, static stretching, and light aerobic activity on muscular performance in women. J Strength Cond Res. 2009 Sep;23(6):1811-9.
  • Gilchrist J, Mandelbaum BR, Melancon H, Ryan GW, Silvers HJ, Griffin LY, Watanabe DS, Dick RW, Dvorak J. A randomized controlled trial to prevent noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury in female collegiate soccer players. Am J Sports Med. 2008 Aug;36(8):1476-83. 
  • Grindstaff TL, Hammill RR, Tuzson AE, Hertel J. Neuromuscular Control Training Programs and Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Rates in Female Athletes: A Numbers-Needed-to-Treat Analysis. J Athl Train. 2006 Oct-Dec; 41(4): 450–456.
  • Herman DC, Oñate JA, Weinhold PS, Guskiewicz KM, Garrett WE, Yu B, Padua DA. The effects of feedback with and without strength training on lower extremity biomechanics. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37(7):1301
  • Hewett TE, Ford KR, Myer GD. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes: Part 2, a meta-analysis of neuromuscular interventions aimed at injury prevention. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(3):490.
  • Hewett TE, Stroupe AL, Nance TA, Noyes FR. Plyometric training in female athletes. Decreased impact forces and increased hamstring torques. Am J Sports Med. 1996 Nov;24(6):765-73.
  • Jay, S. A Video-Based Awareness Program Fails to Reduce Soccer Injuries. NEJM Journal Watch. March 14, 2005. Web. Nov 2014.
  • Jenkins J, Beazell J. Flexibility for runners. Clin Sports Med. 2010 Jul;29(3):365-77.
  • Lauersen JB, Bertelsen DM, Andersen LB. The effectiveness of exercise interventions to prevent sports injuries: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Sports Med. 2014;48:871-877.
  • Mandelbaum BR, Silvers HJ, Watanabe DS, Knarr JF, Thomas SD, Griffin LY, Kirkendall DT, Garrett W: Effectiveness of a Neuromuscular and Proprioceptive Training Program in Preventing Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Female Athletes: 2-Year Follow-up. Am J Sports Med. 2005, 33:1003-1010.
  • Myklebust G, Engebretsen L, Braekken IH, Skjølberg A, Olsen OE, Bahr R. Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female team handball players: a prospective intervention study over three seasons. Clin J Sport Med. 2003 Mar;13(2):71-8.
  • Olsen OE, Myklebust G, Engebretsen L, Holme I, Bahr R. Exercises to prevent lower limb injuries in youth sports: cluster randomised controlled trial. Br J Sports Med. 2005;330:449.
  • Overland K. Flexibility of young athletes. June 2014. Web. Nov 2014.
  • Sadoghi P, von Keudell A, Vavken P. Effectiveness of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention training programs. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012 May 2;94(9):769-76.
  • Sefton JM, Yarar C, Hicks-Little CA, Berry JW, Cordova ML. Six weeks of balance training improves sensorimotor function in individuals with chronic ankle instability. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2011 Feb;41(2):81-9. 
  • Shrier, I. Does Stretching Improve Performance?: A Systematic and Critical Review of the Literature. Clinical J of Sport Med. 2004 Jan;14(5):267-273.
  • Silvers HJ, Mandelbaum BR. Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the female athlete. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41(Suppl I):i52–i59.
  • Stricker PR. Body Composition and Flexibility. Sports Success Rx! Your Child’s Prescription for the Best Experience: American Academy of Pediatrics. Nov 4, 2014. Web Nov 2014.
  • Sugimoto D, Myer GD, McKeon JM, Hewett TE. Evaluation of the effectiveness of neuromuscular training to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes: a critical review of relative risk reduction and numbers-needed-to-treat analyses. Br J Sports Med. 2012 Nov;46(14):979-88.
  • Wild CY, Steele JR, Munro BJ. Insufficient hamstring strength compromises landing technique in adolescent girls. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013 Mar;45(3):497-505.


  • Bates NA, Ford KR, Myer GD, Hewett TE. Between Landing Kinetic and Kinematic Differences in a Drop Vertical Jump. Clin Biomech. 2013 Apr; 28(4):459-66.
  • Chappell JD, Creighton RA, Giuliani C, Yu B, Garrett WE. Kinematics and electromyography of landing preparation in vertical stop-jump: risks for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35(2):235.
  • Doherty C, Chris Bleakley C, Jay Hertel J, Brian Caulfield B, John Ryan J, Delahunt E. Balance failure in single limb stance due to ankle sprain injury: An analysis of center of pressure using the fractal dimension method. Gait and Posture. May 2014;40(1):172–176.
  • Emery CA. Is there a clinical standing balance measurement appropriate for use in sports medicine? A review of the literature. J Sci Med Sport. 2003 Dec;6(4):492-504.
  • Emery CA, Cassidy JD, Klassen TP, Rosychuk RJ, Rowe BB. Development of a clinical static and dynamic standing balance measurement tool appropriate for use in adolescents. Phys Ther. 2005 Jun;85(6):502-14.
  • Functional Movement Screen (FMS).  Available at:  http://www.strengthandconditioningresearch.com/functional-movement-screen-fms/
  • Functional Movement Systems. FMS: Summary of Literature Reviews.  Available at: http://www.functionalmovement.com/articles/Research/2012-09-05_fms_summary_of_literature_reviews
  • Functional Movement Systems. FMS Research Found in Journals.  Available at: http://www.functionalmovement.com/articles/Research/2012-03-15_fms_research_found_in_journals  
  • Hewett TE, Myer GD, Ford KR, Heidt RS Jr, Colosimo AJ, McLean SG, van den Bogert AJ, Paterno MV, Succop P. Biomechanical measures of neuromuscular control and valgus loading of the knee predict anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in female athletes: a prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 2005;33(4):492.
  • Kivlan, BR, Martin RRL. Functional performance testing of the hip in athletes: A systematic review for reliability and validity. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2012 Aug;7(4):402–412.
  • Kouveliotia V, Kellisa E, Kofotolisa N, Amiridisa I. Reliability of Single-leg and Double-leg Balance Tests in Subjects with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Controls. Res Sports Med. 2015 Feb 4:1-16.
  • Krosshaug T, Nakamae A, Boden BP, Engebretsen L, Smith G, Slauterbeck JR, Hewett TE, Bahr R. Mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury in basketball: video analysis of 39 cases. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35(3):359.
  • Myer GD, Ford KR, Hewett TE. New method to identify athletes at high risk of ACL injury using clinic-based measurements and freeware computer analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45:238–244.
  • Olsen OE, Myklebust G, Engebretsen L, Bahr R. Injury mechanisms for anterior cruciate ligament injuries in team handball: a systematic video analysis. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32(4):1002.
  • Padua DA, DiStefano LJ, Beutler AI, de la Motte SJ, DiStefano MJ, Marshall SW. The Landing Error Scoring System as a Screening Tool for an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury–Prevention Program in Elite-Youth Soccer Athletes. J Athl Train. 2015;50(6):589–595. 
  • Padua DA, Marshall SW, Boling MC, Thigpen CA, Garrett WE, Beutler AI. The Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) Is a Valid and Reliable Clinical Assessment Tool of Jump-Landing Biomechanics The JUMP-ACL Study. Am J Sports Med. 2009 Oct;37(10):1996-2002.
  • Rehabilitation Measures Database. Balance Error Scoring System.  Literature review current through: June 2013. Last updated: Aug 29, 2014. Available at: http://www.rehabmeasures.org/Lists/RehabMeasures/DispForm.aspx?ID=1054
  • Sheehan DP, Lafave MR, Katz L. Intra-Rater and Inter-Rater Reliability of the Balance Error Scoring System in Pre-Adolescent School Children. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci. 2011.
  • Trojian TH, McKeag DB. Single leg balance test to identify risk of ankle sprains. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40:610-613.
  • Zebis MK, Andersen LL, Bencke J, Kjaer M, Aagaard P. Identification of athletes at future risk of anterior cruciate ligament ruptures by neuromuscular screening. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37(10):1967.


  • Csintalan RP, Inacio M, Funahashi TT. Incidence Rate of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructions. Perm J. 2008 Summer; 12(3): 17–21.
  • Gage BE, McIlvain NM, Collins CL, Fields SK, Comstock RD. Epidemiology of 6.6 million knee injuries presenting to United States emergency departments from 1999 through 2008. Acad Emerg Med. 2012 Apr;19(4):378-85.
  • Ingram JG, Fields SK, Yard EE, Comstock RD. Epidemiology of knee injuries among boys and girls in US high school athletics. Am J Sports Med. 2008 Jun;36(6):1116-22.
  • Mountcastle SB, Posner M, Kragh JF Jr, Taylor DC. Gender differences in anterior cruciate ligament injury vary with activity: epidemiology of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in a young, athletic population. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35(10):1635.
  • Prodromos CC, Han Y, Rogowski J, Joyce B, Shi K. A meta-analysis of the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament tears as a function of gender, sport, and a knee injury-reduction regimen. Arthroscopy. 2007 Dec;23(12):1320-1325.

  • Bell DR, Guskiewicz KM, Clark MA, Padua DA. Systematic Review of the Balance Error Scoring System. Sports Health. 2011 May; 3(3): 287–295.
  • De Kegel A, Dhooge I, Peersman W, Rijckaert J, Baetens T, Cambier D, Van Waelvelde H. Construct Validity of the Assessment of Balance in Children Who Are Developing Typically and in Children With Hearing Impairments. Physical Therapy. Dec 2010;90(12):1783-1794.
  • Gribble PA, Hertel J, Denegar CR, Buckley WE. The Effects of Fatigue and Chronic Ankle Instability on Dynamic Postural Control. J Athl Train. 2004 Oct-Dec; 39(4): 321–329.
  • ​Hamaoui A, Do MC, Bouisset S. Postural sway increase in low back pain subjects is not related to reduced spine range of motion. Neurosci Lett. 2004 Mar;357(2):135–138.
  • Hodges PW1, Sapsford R, Pengel LH. Postural and respiratory functions of the pelvic floor muscles. Neurourol Urodyn. 2007;26(3):362-71.
  • Lunardi AC, da Silva CCBM, Mendes FAR, Marques AP, Stelmach R, Carvalho CRF. Musculoskeletal Dysfunction and Pain in Adults with Asthma. J Asthma. 2011 Feb;48(1):105-110.​
  • Milanesi JM, Borin G, Corrêa ECR, da Silva AMT, Bortoluzzi DC, Souza JA. Impact of the mouth breathing occurred during childhood in the adult age: Biophotogrammetric postural analysis. Int J Pediatr Otorhi. 2011;75:9990-1004.
  • Ricotti L. Static and dynamic balance in young athletes. J Human Sport and Exercise. 2011;6(4);616-628.
  • Talasz H, Kremser C, Kofler M, Kalchschmid E, Lechleitner M, Rudisch A. Phase-locked parallel movement of diaphragm and pelvic floor during breathing and coughing— a dynamic MRI investigation in healthy females. Int Urogynecol J. 2011;22:61–68.